Fan: a ceiling fan can be an excellent investment because it can make the room 6 or 7 degrees lower in temperature without using much energy. When the air is in circulation it seems much cooler. Ceiling fans are the best option, but a good portable fan can also be very effective.
Blinds and Curtains: install blinds or curtains in white to reflect heat from the house. Close these when the sun is at its brightest to remove heat from the sun and help your fan or air conditioning work more efficiently.
Heat From the Inside: to reduce the amount of heat inside the house, we will need less energy to cool. Internal sources of heat are the most common appliances, electronics and lighting. Analyze where the heat comes. If you have air conditioning, use it wisely. Do not place lamps, televisions or other heating devices near air conditioning because the heat from these appliances can fool the thermostat into thinking that the house is warmer than it actually is. This will cause the air conditioning to over-work itself. Turn off the lights and incandescent heaters when not needed. Replace incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps, which produce the same light but use a fifth of the energy and heat. You should also avoid activities that produce heat such as cooking during hot days or during the hottest hours of the day.
Plants: trees or shrubs can shade air conditioning machines without blocking the airflow. A machine in the shade uses less electricity. Planting deciduous trees at the south and west of the house will keep the house cool in summer and allow passage of sunlight to heat your home in winter. During the day, the temperature of the air can be 3-6 degrees lower in neighborhoods with shade trees.
Ceiling and Walls: If you have a flat roof, it can be painted with special reflective paint or just with a plain white shade. The reflex effect will help keep rooms cooler located well below the ceiling.
Reduce Indoor Humidity: the humidity makes the air in the rooms appear warm. Humidity can be caused by washing and drying clothes, showering or cooking, so it is best to take care planning these activities during the day. We then have to turn the fans to extract warm moist air.
Another option is to design the garden architecture to avoid a large number of stone, concrete or asphalt with no shade in the south and west sides of the house because they increase the temperature of their environment and emit heat to the house after sunset.